His grandmother was a member of the Caribou Clan, who travelled with the caribou as a means to survive. :IV:16:IV In Sápmi, reindeer are used to pull a pulk, a Nordic sled. While these animals are found across the globe in polar regions, they are found in generally one of two types of habitats. Body masses of both breeding and non-breeding females peaks in September. White-tailed deer live in prairies, forests, swamps, wood lots and agricultural fields. They have specialized hooves that will adapt in relation to the season. 3. ", "Evaluation of Programs and Activities in Support of the Species at Risk Act", 10.1890/0012-9658(2001)082[3556:aofcbo]2.0.co;2, "Caribou Census Complete: 325,000 animals", "Defining subspecies, invalid taxonomic tools, and the fate of the woodland caribou", "Rangifer tarandus caribou (Gmelin, 1788): Taxonomic Serial No. Male and female reindeer can grow antlers annually, although the proportion of females that grow antlers varies greatly between population and season. They are flattened, compact and relatively dense. Severely infected individuals are weak and probably have shortened lifespans, but parasite levels vary between populations. Males live four years less than the females, whose maximum longevity is about 17 years. So far, it is considered that the European and Asian reindeer and American caribou were the same animals; however, recent studies show that each evolved from different species, although they are related. Gestation lasts 210 - 240 days and a single calf is produced. Liber 22, Cap.  Reindeer were imported first from Siberia and later also from Norway. Humans hunt this species heavily for meat, fur and antlers. According to the Grubb (2005), Rangifer tarandus is "circumboreal in the tundra and taiga" from "Svalbard, Norway, Finland, Russia, Alaska (USA) and Canada including most Arctic islands, and Greenland, south to northern Mongolia, China (Inner Mongolia; now only domesticated or feral? The sale of fur and meat is an important source of income. With 185,000 reindeer (2001), the industry produces 2,000 tons of reindeer meat and generates 35 million euros annually.  In May or June the calves are born. Reindeer inhabit the subarctic forests and arctic tundra of Greenland, northern North America, and northern Europe across to East Asia. Caribou Habitat Map is a Map in Far Cry New Dawn. Reindeer have two layers of fur. There is also a source page so … Requirements . Caribou are mammals that live in the northern regions of Europe, North America, Asia, and Greenland. In numerous instances, populations of the same subspecies have evolved different demographic and behavioural adaptations, while populations from separate subspecies have evolved similar demographic and behavioural patterns... "[U]nderstanding ecotype in relation to existing ecological constraints and releases may be more important than the taxonomic relationships between populations. Several Norwegian municipalities have one or more reindeer depicted in their coats-of-arms: Eidfjord, Porsanger, Rendalen, Tromsø, Vadsø and Vågå. Lets us not forget with Santa at … Reindeer in northern Fennoscandia (northern Norway, Sweden and Finland) as well in the Kola Peninsula and Yakutia in Russia, are all[dubious – discuss] semi-wild domestic reindeer (Rangifer tarandus f. domesticus), ear-marked by their owners. Reindeer antlers are powdered and sold as an aphrodisiac, or as an nutritional or medicinal supplement, to Asian markets. The Low Arctic population of Peary caribou was designated as threatened.  Exceptionally large males have weighed as much as 318 kg (701 lb). The Ihalmiut are caribou Inuit that followed the Qamanirjuaq barren-ground caribou herd. Migrating reindeer can be negatively affected by parasite loads. Rangifer tarandus is endangered in the United States in Idaho and Washington. Human activities, such as "clear-cutting forestry practices, forest fires, and the clearing for agriculture, roadways, railways, and power lines," favour the conversion of habitats into the preferred habitat of the white-tailed deer-"open forest interspersed with meadows, clearings, grasslands, and riparian flatlands. The knees of many subspecies of reindeer are adapted to produce a clicking sound as they walk. As the antlers grow, they are covered in thick velvet, filled with blood vessels and spongy in texture. They also live in Europe, Russia, and Greenland. It can be prepared fresh, but also dried, salted and hot- and cold-smoked. Associated with the caribou's anatomy are not just descriptive Gwich'in names for all of the body parts including bones, organs, and tissues, but also "an encyclopedia of stories, songs, games, toys, ceremonies, traditional tools, skin clothing, personal names and surnames, and a highly developed ethnic cuisine. They start to work with their antlers just as soon as the velvet starts to fall off.  Lichens are a staple during the winter months as they are a readily available food source, which reduces the reliance on stored body reserves. In Europe, caribou are referred to as “reindeer”, but all caribou and reindeer throughout the world are … There is strong regional variation in Rangifer herd size, By 2013 many caribou herds in North America had "unusually low numbers" and their winter ranges in particular were smaller than they used to be.  Reindeer have been herded for centuries by several Arctic and sub-Arctic peoples, including the Sami, the Nenets and the Yakuts. "In spite of the great variation, all the Pleistocene and living reindeer belong to the same species. The barren-ground caribou (R. t. groenlandicus) is found in western Greenland, but the larger herds are in Alaska, the Northwest Territories and Nunavut.. They are common in both suburban and rural areas. Inuktitut is spoken in the eastern Arctic, and the caribou is known by the name tuktu. ICR represents over 20 indigenous reindeer peoples and about 100,000 reindeer herders in 9 different national states.  The sound is made when a reindeer is walking or running, occurring when the full weight of the foot is on the ground or just after it is relieved of the weight. A reindeer is a reindeer everywhere in the world apart from North America where it’s known as a Caribou. Reindeer [was] particularly abundant in the Magdalenian deposits from the late part of the 4-Wurm just before the end of the Ice Age: at that time and at the early Mesolithic it was the game animal for many tribes. The horn-like elongations grow on the upper head and can be as long as 53 inches in beam length in males with a width of 39 inches. There is an ox shaped like a stag. The antler is the blood that has hardened, in fact, the core of the antler is still bloody when the velvet starts to fall off, at least close to the base. The prominent, palmate brow tines extend forward, over the face. The Taimyr herdof migrating Siberian tundra reindeer (R. t. sibiricus) in Russia is the largest wild reindeer herd in the world, varying between 400,000 … In the largest subspecies, the antlers of large males can range up to 100 cm (39 in) in width and 135 cm (53 in) in beam length. Based on a review in 1961, these were considered invalid and included in R. tarandus caribou, but some recent authorities have considered them all valid, even suggesting that they are quite distinct. Incoming cold air is warmed by body heat before entering the lungs and water is condensed from the expired air and captured before the reindeer's breath is exhaled, then used to moisten dry incoming air and possibly be absorbed into the blood through the mucous membranes. [Notes 1], Geist (2007) argued that the "true woodland caribou, the uniformly dark, small-maned type with the frontally emphasised, flat-beamed antlers", which is "scattered thinly along the southern rim of North American caribou distribution" has been incorrectly classified. , The use of reindeer for transportation is common among the nomadic peoples of northern Russia (but not anymore in Scandinavia). The reindeer has an important economic role for all circumpolar peoples, including the Saami, the Nenets, the Khants, the Evenks, the Yukaghirs, the Chukchi and the Koryaks in Eurasia. Reindeer have a dramatic effect on vegetation in their range. Names for reindeer in languages spoken throughout their (former) native range: The species' taxonomic name, Rangifer tarandus, was defined by Carl Linnaeus in 1758. , In 1986 Kurtén reported that the oldest reindeer fossil was an "antler of tundra reindeer type from the sands of Süssenborn" in the Pleistocene (Günz) period (680,000 to 620,000 BP). In the non-forested mountains of central Norway, such as Jotunheimen, it is still possible to find remains of stone-built trapping pits, guiding fences and bow rests, built especially for hunting reindeer. According to Olaus Magnus's Historia de Gentibus Septentrionalibus – printed in Rome in 1555 – Gustav I of Sweden sent 10 reindeer to Albert I, Duke of Prussia, in the year 1533.  Barren-ground caribou are susceptible to the effects of climate change due to a mismatch in the phenological process, between the availability of food during the calving period. The young protagonists of Caribou Song, like Tomson himself, followed the caribou herd with their families. Island herds such as the subspecies R. t. pearsoni and R. t. platyrhynchus make local movements. , A study by researchers from University College London in 2011 revealed that reindeer can see light with wavelengths as short as 320 nm (i.e. " The antlers typically have two separate groups of points, lower and upper. Habitat Reindeer are found in the arctic tundra and subarctic forests of northern North America, Greenland, and northern Europe to east Asia. , Because of its importance to many cultures, Rangifer tarandus and some of its subspecies have names in many languages. Large populations of wild reindeer are still found in Norway, Finland, Siberia, Greenland, Alaska and Canada.  Currently, the larger racks of antlers are used by Inuit as materials for carving. [Notes 4] Fur is the primary insulation factor that allows reindeer to regulate their core body temperature in relation to their environment, the thermogradient, even if the temperature rises to 100 °F (38 °C). Reindeer meat is very tender and lean. ", In the 1980s, Gwich'in Traditional Management Practices were established to protect the Porcupine caribou, upon which the Gwich'in people depend. , The colour of the fur varies considerably, both between individuals and depending on season and subspecies.  As of 2015, the IUCN has classified the reindeer as Vulnerable due to an observed population decline of 40% over the last ≈25 years. It is an animal whose habitat is in the Arctic areas of both North America and Eurasia. , The females usually measure 162–205 cm (64–81 in) in length and weigh 80–120 kg (180–260 lb). Some of the Rangifer tarandus subspecies may be further divided by ecotype depending on several behavioural factors – predominant habitat use (northern, tundra, mountain, forest, boreal forest, forest-dwelling, woodland, woodland (boreal), woodland (migratory) or woodland (mountain), spacing (dispersed or aggregated) and migration patterns (sedentary or migratory).  In Finland, there are about 6,000 reindeer herders, most of whom keep small herds of less than 50 reindeer to raise additional income. These were first named in the 1823 poem "A Visit from St. Nicholas", where they are called Dasher, Dancer, Prancer, Vixen, Comet, Cupid, Dunder, and Blixem. Antlers grow very quickly every year on the males. . Some inhabit vast, open tundra, while others live along the edges and amongst forests. what is now eastern Canada and the northeastern U.S. Nunavut (the barren-ground caribou population) and Labrador, Southern Canada and the northwestern U.S. mainland, The High Arctic islands of Nunavut and the Northwest Territories, Canada, This page was last edited on 2 December 2020, at 18:13. In 1939, they were living the traditional life style at one of their hunting camps in Koyukuk near the location of what is now the Koyukuk National Wildlife Refuge. In the CCHE mechanism, in cold weather, blood vessels are closely knotted and intertwined with arteries to the skin and appendages that carry warm blood with veins returning to the body that carry cold blood causing the warm arterial blood to exchange heat with the cold venous blood. Free to graze in their natural habitat, during the festive season, the reindeer are trained to pull sleighs to raise public awareness and funds to maintain the Centre and their existence. , Domesticated reindeer are mostly found in northern Fennoscandia and Russia, with a herd of approximately 150–170 reindeer living around the Cairngorms region in Scotland. Reindeer habitat is found far away from civilization, and the biggest part of the hunt’s price is travel and camping. Average Weight: 60 to 300kg (132 - 660 lbs) Average Length: 160 to 200 cm long (5.3 - 6.6 feet) plus a short tail of 14 - 20 cm (6 - 8 inches), 80 to 150cm (2.6 - 4.9 feet) tall at the shoulder.  After 45 days, the calves are able to graze and forage, but continue suckling until the following autumn when they become independent from their mothers.. Some recent authorities have considered them all valid, even suggesting that they are quite distinct. In the 19th century, it was apparently still present in southern Idaho. Overall, currently Reindeer are classified as Vulnerable (VU) on the IUCN Red List and its numbers today are decreasing. The amount of lichen in a diet decreases in latitude, which results in nutritional stress being higher in areas with low lichen abundance. Isolation of Rangifer tarandus in refugia during the last glacial – the Wisconsin in North America and the Weichselian in Eurasia-shaped "intraspecific genetic variability" particularly between the North American and Eurasian parts of the Arctic. There are large population differences among individual herds and the size of individual herds has varied greatly since 1970. : 202411", "Variation in Mitochondrial Dna and Microsatellite Dna in Caribou (, 10.1644/1545-1542(2005)86[495:VIMDAM]2.0.CO;2, "The Holocene occurrence of reindeer on Franz Josef Land, Russia | Request PDF", "Evolving perspectives on caribou population dynamics, have we got it right yet? Reindeer Research Project Craftivity. From November to December, non-breeding females have more body mass than breeding females, as non-breeding females are able to focus their energies towards storage during colder months rather than lactation and reproduction. Caribou spend most of their lives in open country. The descriptions have been interpreted as being of reindeer living in the southern Ural Mountains in c. 350 BC, A deer-like animal described by Julius Caesar in his Commentarii de Bello Gallico (chapter 6.26) from the Hercynian Forest in the year 53 BC is most certainly to be interpreted as reindeer:. Reindeer meatballs are sold canned. " COSEWIC developed Designated Unit (DU) attribution to add to classifications already in use. Woodland caribou were designated as threatened in 2002.  The sounds originate in the tendons of the knees and may be audible from ten metres (yards) away. Carl Linnaeus chose the name Rangifer for the reindeer genus, which Albertus Magnus used in his De animalibus, fol. ", Male reindeer use their antlers to compete with other males during the mating season.  The word caribou comes through French, from the Mi'kmaq qalipu, meaning "snow shoveler" and referring to its habit of pawing through the snow for food. This velvet is dark brown on woodland or barren-ground caribou and slate-grey on Peary caribou and the Dolphin-Union caribou herd. On the tenth day, they came back and they said there was still caribou going across the river night and day. According to the University of Michigan (Museum of Zoology) the total population size of the Reindeer is around 5 million individuals. He has hand-raised white-tailed deer (including one in his bathtub), black-tailed deer, and reindeer/caribou, as well as pronghorn antelope and othe… , A variety of predators prey heavily on reindeer, including overhunting by people in some areas, which contributes to the decline of populations.. They use their front hooves to dig craters to reach the food. The city of Piteå also has a reindeer. Thus the caribou came up on earth. Based on Banfield's often-cited A Revision of the Reindeer and Caribou, Genus Rangifer (1961), R. t. caboti (the Labrador caribou), R. t. osborni (Osborn's caribou—from British Columbia) and R. t. terraenovae (the Newfoundland caribou) were considered invalid and included in R. t. caribou.  In Alaska, reindeer herders use satellite telemetry to track their herds, using online maps and databases to chart the herd's progress. Biologists call this activity "cratering" because of the crater-like cavity the caribou’s hooves leave in the snow.  Androgens play essential role in cervids antler formation. Although a sled drawn by 20 reindeer will cover no more than 20–25 km (12 to 15 miles) a day (compared to 7–10 km; 4 to 6 miles on foot, 70–80 km; 45 to 50 miles by a dog sled loaded with cargo and 150–180 km; 90 to 110 miles by a dog sled without cargo), it has the advantage that the reindeer will discover their own food, while a pack of 5–7 sled dogs requires 10–14 kg (25 to 30 lb) of fresh fish a day. Reindeer mainly eat grasses, herbs, sedges, mosses, twigs, fungi and lichens. This arctic creature is most commonly thought of as North American, but may also be found in Finland, Norway, and Greenland as well. At the top this horn spreads out like the palm of a hand or the branches of a tree.  According to IUCN, Rangifer tarandus as a species is not endangered because of its overall large population and its widespread range. Reindeer are not considered fully domesticated, as they generally roam free on pasture grounds. they are rather small and spindly in the northernmost subspecies), but on average the bull reindeer's antlers are the second largest of any extant deer, after the moose. These large concave hooves offer stable support on wet, soggy ground and on crusty snow. " While antlers of bull woodland caribou are typically smaller than barren-ground caribou, they can be over one metre (3') across.  Wolverines will take newborn calves or birthing cows, as well as (less commonly) infirm adults. Siberian reindeer owners also use the reindeer to ride on (Siberian reindeer are larger than their Scandinavian relatives). Some reindeer in the area are truly domesticated, mostly used as draught animals (nowadays commonly for tourist entertainment and races, traditionally important for the nomadic Sámi).  Caribou numbers have fluctuated historically, but many herds are in decline across their range. Reindeer is the European name for the species while in North America, the species is known as Caribou. Reindeer are found in Alaska, Canada, Greenland, northern Europe and northern Asia in tundra, mountains and woodland habitats. They have been known to eat their own fallen antlers, probably for calcium. Reindeer – also called caribou – are ubiquitous in the world’s northern latitudes, but the populations closest to the North Pole are dwindling because of climate change. They are superbly adapted to cold, wind, and snow. Two of Santa’s reindeer made a surprise appearance during the holiday festivities this past weekend in downtown Newton. Alaska does have some reindeer, however, imported from Siberia in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.  During the mating season, males battle for access to females. They live in the Northern parts of North America in Canada and Alaska.  Barren-ground caribou are also found in Kitaa in Greenland, but the larger herds are in Alaska, the Northwest Territories, and Nunavut.. , Reindeer hunting by humans has a very long history and wild reindeer "may well be the species of single greatest importance in the entire anthropological literature on hunting. Longer autumns leading to increased amounts of freezing rain created a few inches of ice over lichen, starving many reindeer.. This map reveals all Caribou habitat locations on your Hope County Map. The animals came from Norway and were supposed to be domesticated here, but they have been feral from the beginning. They can find food under snow, presumably by being able to smell it. Advertisement.  An analysis of mtDNA in 2005 found differences between the caribou from Newfoundland, Labrador, southwestern Canada and southeastern Canada, but maintained all in R. tarandus caribou. The antlerogenic genes in reindeer have more sensitivity to androgens in comparison with other cervids. The reindeer has large feet with crescent-shaped, cloven hooves for walking in snow or swamps. 25–28 in.  Weight varies drastically between seasons, with males losing as much as 40% of their pre-rut weight.. Domesticated reindeer have also been used for milk, e.g. Elder Chief of Koyukuk and chair for the Western Arctic Caribou Herd Working Group Benedict Jones, or K’ughto’oodenool’o’, represents the Middle Yukon River, Alaska.  Velvet lumps in March can develop into a rack measuring more than a metre in length (3 ft) by August. The logo for Umeå University features three reindeer. In 2002 the Atlantic-Gaspésie population of the woodland caribou was designated as endangered by COSEWIC. Inuit artists from the barren lands, incorporate depictions of caribou—and items made from caribou antlers and skin—in carvings, drawings, prints and sculpture. , Normally travelling about 19–55 km (12–34 mi) a day while migrating, the caribou can run at speeds of 60–80 km/h (37–50 mph).  Geist describes them as frontally emphasised, flat-beamed antlers. ", A darker belly colour may be caused by two mutations of MC1R. "In the winter, the fleshy pads on these toes grow longer and form a tough, hornlike rim. , Rangifer varies in size and colour from the smallest, the Svalbard reindeer, to the largest, the boreal woodland caribou. The males stop eating at this time and lose a great deal of their body reserves. One male will mate with multiple females, competing for females during the autumn rut, which is during October and early November. The Cairngorm Reindeer visitor centre at Glenmore is open most of the year, closing from late January to the February half term. During harsh winters, deer may also become a nuisance to farmers by eating hay or … Wilmer, Pat; Stone, Graham; Johnston, Ian (2009). According to the IUCN Red List the total population size of this species is around 2,890,410 mature individuals. According to the Species at Risk Public Registry (SARA), woodland, "Caribou have large feet with four toes. There are two varieties, or ecotypes: tundra reindeer and forest (or woodland) reindeer. In Alaska and Finland, reindeer sausage is sold in supermarkets and grocery stores. Two males will lock each other's antlers together and try to push each other away. Northern populations, which usually are relatively small, are whiter, while southern populations, which typically are relatively large, are darker. Reindeer were introduced to, and feral in, Iceland, Kerguelen Islands, South Georgia Island, Pribilof Islands, St. Matthew Island.". , As an adaptation to their Arctic environment, they have lost their circadian rhythm.. "(Marie Kilunik, Aivilingmiut, Crnkovich 1990:116). In Scandinavian countries reindeer meat is popular. This process is called antlerogenesis. The unique physical feature of the animals is the antlers. About 6,000 reindeer and more than 1,000 reindeer herders were part of the operation. Breeding females have more body mass than non-breeding females between the months of March and September with a difference of around 10 kg (20lb) more than non-breeding females. A male will stop eating during this time and lose much of his body reserves. " Reindeer continue to migrate until the bull reindeer have spent the back fat..  His father, Joe Highway, was a caribou hunter. Males usually shed them after breeding, whereas females don’t do so until spring. The Porcupine caribou and the barren-ground caribou form large herds and undertake lengthy seasonal migrations from birthing grounds to summer and winter feeding grounds in the tundra and taiga. I remember a story my Uncle Jack told me – a Dunne-Za creation story about how animals once ruled the earth and were ten times their size and that got me thinking about scale and using the idea of the antler, which is a thing that everyone is scared of, and making it into something more approachable and abstract. In Finland, logging and winter sporting activities may disturb reindeer habitat.  Today, wild reindeer have disappeared from these areas, especially from the southern parts, where it vanished almost everywhere.  By the 4-Würm period (110,000–70,000 to 12,000–10,000 BP) its European range was very extensive. pp. "Specifically, loud knee-clicking is discovered to be an honest signal of body size, providing an exceptional example of the potential for non-vocal acoustic communication in mammals. , The canonical Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.) At this time, males take part in fights that leave them exhausted and injured. 268: "Dicitur Rangyfer quasi ramifer". Their home ranges tend be as big as 190 square miles (500 square km), according to Encyclopedia Britannica. Students will research a reindeer’s appearance, habitat, behaviors, diet, predators, and adaptations. The females are of the same form as the males, and their horns are the same shape and size. Reindeer have specialised counter-current vascular heat exchange in their nasal passages.  There are many factors contributing to the decline in numbers. A single owner may have hundreds, sometimes thousands of animals. ", "Population Structure and Hybridization of Alaskan Caribou and Reindeer: Integrating Genetics and Local Knowledge", "Biological adaptations in the Arctic cervid, the reindeer (Rangifer tarandus)", "Morphological change in Newfoundland caribou: Effects of abundance and climate", "Igloolik elders win northern science award", Caribou at the Alaska Department of Fish & Game, "Knee-clicks and visual traits indicate fighting ability in eland antelopes: Multiple messages and back-up signals", Reindeer use UV light to survive in the wild, "Shifting mirrors: adaptive changes in retinal reflections to winter darkness in Arctic reindeer", "Non-invasive assessment of the interrelationships of diet, pregnancy rate, group composition, and physiological and nutritional stress of barren-ground caribou in late winter", Caribou Migration Monitoring by Satellite Telemetry, "Monarch butterfly migration and parasite transmission in eastern North America", Arctic Reindeer Go Off the Circadian Clock, BBC Earth News-Reindeer herds in global decline, "Weather conditions and variation in timing of spring and fall migrations of migratory caribou", "Non-Invasive Assessment of the Interrelationships of Diet, Pregnancy Rate, Group Composition, and Physiological and Nutritional Stress of Barren-Ground Caribou in Late Winter", "Phase-dependent climate–predator interactions explain three decades of variation in neonatal caribou survival", Starvation killed 80,000 reindeer after unusual Arctic rains cut off the animals’ food supply, ''The Sun, the Moon and Firmament in Chukchi Mythology and on the Relations of Celestial Bodies and Sacrifice'' by Ülo Siimets at 140, "How Does the Summer Solstice Affect Animals? , Reindeer mate in late September to early November and the gestation period is about 228–234 days. The amount of lichen in a diet is found more in non-pregnant adult diets than pregnant individuals due to the lack of nutritional value.  The tapetum lucidum of Arctic reindeer eyes changes in colour from gold in summer to blue in winter to improve their vision during times of continuous darkness, and perhaps enable them to better spot predators. Contemporary Canadian artist Brian Jungen's, of Dunne-za First Nations ancestry, commissioned an installation entitled "The ghosts on top of my head" (2010–11) in Banff, Alberta, which depicts the antlers of caribou, elk and moose..  Quebec-Labrador bull caribou antlers can be significantly larger and wider than other woodland caribou. Infections create an effect known as culling: infected migrating animals are less likely to complete the migration.  When a female has undergone nutritional stress, it is possible for her to not reproduce for the year. :88, When the antler growth is fully grown and hardened, the velvet is shed or rubbed off. " The word rein is of Norse origin. The ice covers the vegetation and caribou starve. , The table above includes R. tarandus caboti (Labrador caribou), R. tarandus osborni (Osborn's caribou – from British Columbia) and R. tarandus terraenovae (Newfoundland caribou). “Without habitat protections, the chances of us seeing caribou in the Lower 48 again is pretty slim.” Read more: Capturing wild animals for study can stress them to death. Their large feet act as snowshoes, shovels and even paddles in water, allowing them to travel … Symbols of the wild north, caribou are a sought after species for wildlife viewers in Alaska. The last remaining wild tundra reindeer in Europe are found in portions of southern Norway.  Reindeer herded by the Chukchis have been known to devour mushrooms enthusiastically in late summer. The latter is probably a misunderstanding of the seasonal change in reindeer fur colour. 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