A wave of young black vocal groups springs up with variations of the style popularized by the Orioles. The problem was that their voices tended to drop with puberty at about the same time that they were well trained and familiar with the ever more difficult singing parts. Working in his home woodshop, Orville appropriates the carved, arched top design of the violin and applies it to mandolins and guitars. The Midnighters cause waves when their off-color “Work With Me Annie” and its equally suggestive sequels become the most popular R&B records of the year, resulting in many communities calling for a complete ban on rock ‘n’ roll. The Academy represented the highest social circle in New York society and the board of directors resisted admitting members of new wealthy families into their inner circle. In England, Lonnie Donegan released a version of Leadbelly’s “Rock Island Line.” It flew up the English charts. The double-cutaway design will later be renamed the Les Paul SG. When I heard it in Calaonia, it was being used much more often by women to accompany love songs, than by men.” In Italy these were known by other names: the ‘viola da mano’ with six courses of strings and the ‘chitarra’ with 4 courses of strings (or ‘guitarra’ in Spain). On February 7th, federal agents raided a dozen of Chicago’s North Side nightclubs. On the 50th anniversary of the adoption of “In God We Trust” as the official national motto of the United States of America, the Senate reaffirmed its use by resolution (see 1956), The Avett Brothers released their breakthrough 5th album. In November, Ronnie Gilbert (9/7/1926 – 6/6/2015), Lee Hays (3/14/1914 – 8/26/1981), Fred Hellerman (5/13/1927 – 9/1/2016) and Pete Seeger (5/3/1919 – 1/27/2014) formed a musical group called The Weavers. June 13th: Thurgood Marshall was nominated to be the first black Justice on the Supreme Court. The Everly Brothers’ hit “Wake Up Little Susie” is banned from the airwaves in Boston for lyrical content. It used gut strings in six courses and was played with a pick, unlike the other early guitar forms, which were bowed. It becomes a musicians’ hangout featuring such attractions as Art Tatum. J.S. Berners-Lee wrote a proposal in March 1989 for  “a large hypertext database with typed links,” and began to implement it on a newly acquired NeXT workstation. Lehman Brothers held over $600 billion in assists. The biggest is “The Girl Can’t Help It” starring blonde sexpot Jayne Mansfield, and featuring performances by Little Richard, Fats Domino and Eddie Cochran. Louis Armstrong forms a vocal quartet with some of his boyhood friends in New Orleans. Harmony musical instruments sold over 500,000 units. In September the German army invaded Poland and war was declared on Germany by the United Kingdom, France and the British Dominions. James P. Johnson’s “Worried and Lonesome Blues” and “Carolina Shout” begin to approach Jazz. The Orioles “Crying In The Chapel” becomes the first R&B hit to approach the Top 10 on the Pop Charts. Johann Anton Stauffer (Vienna, Austria, 1805 & after 1851) working with guitar virtuoso Rinaldo Luigi Legnani (1790-1877) who was also an amateur violin and guitar maker, developed a guitar design that performed particularly well both in volume and tone. Scott Joplin shows some rags to a publisher. At the end of the Baroque period, the courses were replaced by single strings, and a final string was added to create the six-stringed guitar of today. It also marked the first instance of the threat of Mutual Assured Destruction (M.A.D.) This is due to a simple mistake. While still at National Guitar, George Beauchamp worked with Adolph Rickenbacker to develop the Ro-Pat-In Corporation to sell ‘Electro’ Hawaiian guitars. President Nixon is the only President to date to resign his office. The song: “That’s Why They Call Me Shine” was written in 1910 by Cecil Mack, Ford Dabney (w) & Lew Brown (m) in remembrance of Shine and the riots. Following the session with Floyd, they were packing their cars with their instruments when Clarence was hit by a drunken driver and dragged up the street about 20 feet. DAT (Digital Audio Tape) was released by Sony as a recording and playback system. Richard Starkey, known as Ringo Starr, joined the Beatles; Starr had performed occasionally with The Beatles in Hamburg. Yiddish theater begins its period of greatest popularity and influence. An 18-year-old hacker from Sedona Arizona by the name Justin Frankel developed ‘WinAmp’, a free MP3 player that became a fixture within the Windows operating system and contributed to the wild success of the digital music revolution. This was a technique which had been handed down from lute players. Electronic amplification of guitar was first widely popularized by the 1930s and 1940s craze for Hawaiian music, to amplify the popular lap steel Hawaiian guitar. This meant that the playing of chords, even if they interrupted the melodic smoothness of a single part, became a much more prevalent feature of music. December 31st: Paul McCartney filed a lawsuit against band manager Allen Klein, Apple Records, John Lennon, George Harrison and Ringo Starr to officially dissolve the Beatles. This would bring piano roll versions of many forms of music into American households over the next 20 years. The early productions had orchestral strings added to the group’s simple banjo, guitar and whistle instrumentation. He bought seven of them. They made many types of stringed instruments, including ukuleles, acoustic and electric guitars, and violins. Blind Lemon Jefferson recorded over eighty blues tunes between 1925 and 1929 and was generally responsible for the surge of popularity in the country blues in this period. Stuart Sutcliffe dies from a brain hemorrhage. March 31st, 1949: RCA Victor introduces the 45 RPM Record which is easier to produce, smaller, and cheaper than 78’s. The Righteous Brothers released the Phil Spector-produced hit “You’ve Lost That Lovin’ Feelin.” The song had several firsts: It is the 1st 4-minute single to hit number 1 in the U.S. and the first tune produced by Spector to top the charts in England. The U.S. set up a military blockade at sea and demanded that the Soviets dismantle the missile bases in Cuba and remove all offensive weapons. A long and mighty history, owing itself to a lineage of equally mighty individuals, has brought the Electric Guitar out of the treetops of imagination and into the walking flesh of our lives. The controversy remains whether the fans were upset by Dylan’s perceived abandonment of acoustic folk traditions or lousy sound quality and unusually high volume (for a predominantly acoustic venue). A new TV situation comedy is aired to appeal to the growing Baby Boom market of teenagers —. The term “rhythm & blues” is coined by young Billboard reporter and future Atlantic Records producer Jerry Wexler. A-J Charron An English independent contractor at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Switzerland, Tim Berners-Lee, built ENQUIRE, as a personal database of people and software models, but also as a way to play with hypertext – each new page of information in ENQUIRE had to be linked to a page. He sold the company to CBS for $13 million dollars. First private bathtub appeared in a New York hotel. MTV was launched on August 1st by a New York City-based cable network to play music videos hosted by on-air hosts who became known as ‘VJ’s’ (Video Jockeys). Brian Epstein dismissed Pete Best from the Beatles on August 16th. It killed their hits for four years due to radio blackballing. A MIDI trigger could generate any sound sample or waveform within a computer program that could then be directed to an amplifier and speakers. October: A 13-day confrontation between the Soviet Union, Cuba and the United States became known as The Cuban Missile Crisis. Gibson introduced the ES-150. He studied under Joseph Haydn and gained a reputation as a virtuoso pianist as a young man. He first tried to enter the campus on September 20th, then the 25th, and again on the 26th. heard this music. In New York City, in an August heat-wave, tensions between white Irish and black Southern immigrants flared into riots at the funeral of a white Irish plain-cloths police officer who had been cut by a black man protecting his girl-friend from harassment. This later became known as the Les Paul “Burst.” That small visual alteration provided the basis for some of the most desirable and collectible Les Paul guitars ever made. Tracy Chapman released her debut album of the same name. Fender Musical Instruments was sold to CBS for $13,000,000 reflecting the belief by corporate America that there was money to be made in the business of popular music. His wife sells silk flowers to support them. This made the CD industry a bit nervous. After a bit of a stall during the early 1950s, Sinatra was re-born by winning an Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor in. He died the next day. The absolute French monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic Clergy was violently overthrown and replaced with a government formed under the Enlightenment and based on principals of citizenship and inalienable rights. This became the largest filing for bankruptcy in US history to date. This, in theory, would help eliminate any trace of secularism that had crept into the church. The parent company of Gibson Musical Instruments, Chicago Musical Instruments, was taken over by South American brewing conglomerate ECL. A hurricane and tidal wave hit Galveston. In 1946 they begin recording rhythm & blues, becoming one of the most prominent independent labels of the next decade as a result. At the order of U.S. President Harry S. Truman, after 6 months of intense firebombing of 67 other Japanese cities, the nuclear weapon Little Boy was dropped on the city of Hiroshima on Monday, August 6th, 1945, followed on August 9th by the detonation of the Fat Man nuclear bomb over Nagasaki. He worked out the decryption with two other programmers whose identities are still unknown. Then, the classical (or Spanish) guitar was modified to make the acoustic guitar in an attempt to have an even louder sounding instrument. The ‘Chicago Automatic Machine & Tool Company’ invents the jukebox. The era of the singer-songwriter had begun. Under the mandate of Public Law 601, passed by the 79th Congress, the committee of nine representatives investigated suspected threats of subversion or propaganda that attacked “the form of government guaranteed by our Constitution.”. White pop vocalist Johnnie Ray records the two-sided smash “Cry”  / “The Little White Cloud That Cried.” His emotional wailing leads many to believe he is both black and a female as the song tops the R&B charts. The young future Bop players are being born. Les Paul takes his homemade experimental semi-solid guitar to Gibson to try to sell the instrument commercially. The Big Bands never recovered, and the Big Band Era was over. The first signature series guitar was instigated by the Gibson Company for Nick Lucas – a popular singer and musician of the day. The death toll is estimated at 168 with injury estimates of over 700 people. He established the first music conservatory in Spain and added a fifth course to the instrument. The Court felt that the State’s interests become stronger over the course of pregnancy and tied State regulation of abortion to the mother’s trimester of pregnancy. Songs could be found, bought and cataloged individually. Earlier, in 1958, America had provoked the Soviet Union by deploying Thor IRBMs in the UK (Project Emily) and in 1961 deploying Jupiter IRBMs in Italy and Turkey. Faxardo wrote that the guitarra “won’t bear the fingers but must be touched with a fine quill to make it exert its harmony.” Documents of the day refer to the Vihuela de Mano (played with the fingers) and the vihuela de penile (played with a quill). The official cause of death was acute hepatitis. January: almost 20 years after the Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS) had acquired the Fender Musical Instrument Companies in 1965 for $13 million, they sold it to an investor group led by William Schultz (then president of Fender) for $12.5 million. He helps redesign and refine the Gibson carved archtop instruments to help increase lagging sales. The Legality of this motto was quickly challenged as the United States Constitution forbids the government to make any law respecting the establishment of a national religion. On the afternoon of October 11th, 1902, Sylvo Reams, Lewis A. Williams, LeRoy Hornbeck, John W. Adams, Samuel K. VanHorn, and Orville H. Gibson met at the County Clerk’s office to form a “Partnership Limited Association” (fundamentally, a business structure in which various investing members had limited liabilities) for the “Gibson Mandolin-Guitar Manufacturing Co., Limited.” Adams, VanHorn, and Hornbeck were lawyers practicing in Kalamazoo. Blues become a standard feature of honky tonks and dance halls. Reams and Williams were both in the retail music business, and all saw the opportunity to capitalize on Orville’s creative talents. Many of his improvements are considered the standards of the classical guitar today. The promoters, Lou Adler, John Phillips (of The Mamas & the Papas), Alan Pariser and Derek Taylor wanted Rock to be elevated artistically to the prominence of Folk and Jazz. Eventually they were bought out by a Japanese company who created the Squire series with much less than impressive results. The landscape of music distribution was changing now you could legally buy the music you wanted – not forced to buy whole albums for a single song. While waiting for a police “clean-up crew” to transport the arrestees, a crowd gathered. The company designs its first Style 45 guitar. “DVD Jon” developed a program to decrypt commercial DVDs. Opera is born in the salon of Count Giovanni de Bardi as a group of intellectuals and musicians gathered to find a way to combine music and drama. In December 2008, President George W. Bush signed the PRO-IP Act into law. Seeger and Hays were identified as Communist Party USA members by FBI informant Harvey Matusow (who later recanted). Jim Morrison of the Doors was convicted of exposing himself in Miami and sentenced to 6 months in jail. Sinatra had suffered from senile dementia and had made no public appearances following a heart attack in January of 1997. It was an unsuccessful action by CIA trained Cuban exiles to invade southern Cuba. The resulting press helped educate the world about the Third Reich. Science and art flourished. The event was created by the relatively new MTV (Music Television). Few, if any women drank in bars examined and does Wonder to sustain, it is seen in United... 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